What is Bladder Cancer?
Blabber Cancer is a type of cancer that begins in your bladder most often in the cells that line the inside of the bladder. Bladder cancer typically affects adults, though it can occur at any age.
- Transitional Cell Bladder Cancer (TCC)
TCC, also known as urothelial carcinoma, is the most common type of bladder cancer. Cancer starts in cells, called transitional cells, in the bladder lining (urothelium). Some bladder cancers begin as an invasive tumor growing into the muscle wall of the bladder. Others begin at a non-invasive stage that involves only the inner lining of the bladder – this is early (superficial) bladder cancer. Some non-invasive cancers develop into invasive bladder cancer.
- Carcinoma in Situ (CIS)
It is a type of non-invasive bladder cancer that appears as a flat, red area in the bladder. CIS can grow quickly, and if it’s not treated effectively, there’s a high risk that CIS will develop into an invasive bladder cancer.
- Papillary Cancer
Papillary Bladder cancer is a form of early bladder cancer. It appears as mushroom-like growths or is leaf-shaped like seaweed (fronds). Some people may have both papillary cancer and CIS.
- Rarer Types of Bladder Cancer
These include squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma. Squamous cell cancers start from a different kind of cell in the bladder lining. Adenocarcinoma starts from epithelial cells. Both of these types of bladder cancer are usually invasive.
- Blood in your urine
- A frequent urge to urinate
- Pain when you urinate
- Low back pain
- Increasing age
- Other chemicals
- Ethnic background
- Food and drink
- Previous radiotherapy or chemotherapy
- Repeated bouts
- Radiation Therapy is a high-energy ray that kills cancer cells and normal cells in its path. Radiation may be given for small muscle-invasive bladder cancers. It is commonly used as an alternative approach to surgery.
- Chemotherapy is the use of powerful drugs to kill cancer. In bladder cancer, chemotherapy may be given alone or with surgery or radiation therapy or both. It may be given before or after the other therapies. Chemotherapy can usually be given as day-care procedure, but it may require a stay in the hospital.
- Transurethral Resection with Fulguration In this operation, an instrument (resectoscope) is inserted through the urethra and into the bladder. A small wire loop on the end of the instrument then removes the tumor by cutting it or burning it with electrical current (fulguration). It is usually performed for the initial diagnosis of bladder cancer and the treatment of stages Ta and T1 cancers. Often, after transurethral resection, additional treatment is given (for example, intravesical therapy) to help treat the bladder cancer.
- Radical Cystectomy In this operation, the entire bladder is removed, as well as its surrounding lymph nodes and other structures that may contain cancer. It is usually performed for cancers that have at least invaded into the muscular layer of the bladder wall or for more superficial cancers that extend over much of the bladder or that have failed to respond to more conservative treatments. Occasionally, the bladder is removed to relieve severe urinary symptoms.
- Segmental or Partial Cystectomy In this operation, part of the bladder is removed. It is usually performed for solitary low-grade tumors that have invaded the bladder wall but are limited to a small area of the bladder.