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Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin (prepuce) from the human penis. In the most common procedure, the foreskin is opened and then separated from the glans after inspection. The circumcision device (if used) is placed, and then the foreskin is removed.

Circumcision is the standard procedure for:

  • Phimosis: a narrowing of the foreskin, by which the foreskin can’t be moved over the tip of the penis. Phimosis can be congenital or can be the result of repeated infections of the foreskin. Sometimes the doctor can perform a simple incision, which allows the foreskin to be effectively widened.
  • Paraphimosis: the foreskin is drawn behind the tip and can’t be moved back over the tip of the penis. Paraphimosis is caused by repeated inflammation of the foreskin. Here also, apart from circumcision, a simple incision is often a possibility, which widens the foreskin.
  • Balanitis: repeated inflammation of the tip of the penis and the foreskin.

circumcision-surgery

Circumcision might have various health benefits, including:

  • Easier hygiene. Circumcision makes it simpler to wash the penis. Washing beneath the foreskin of an uncircumcised penis is easy, however.
  • Decreased risk of urinary tract infections. The overall risk of urinary tract infections in males is low, but these infections are more common in uncircumcised males. Severe infections early in life can lead to kidney problems later on.
  • Decreased risk of sexually transmitted infections. Circumcised men might have a lower risk of certain sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Still, safe sexual practices remain essential.
  • Prevention of penile problems. Occasionally, the foreskin on an uncircumcised penis can be difficult or impossible to retract (phimosis). It can lead to inflammation of the foreskin or head of the penis.
  • Decreased risk of penile cancer. Although cancer of the penis is rare, it’s less common in circumcised men. Also, cervical cancer is less common in the female sexual partners of circumcised men.

Circumcision might not be an option if certain blood-clotting disorders are present. Also, circumcision might not be appropriate for premature babies who still require medical care in the hospital nursery.

Circumcision doesn’t affect fertility, nor is circumcision thought to enhance or detract from sexual pleasure for men or their partners.